Smith & Associates
Phone: 1-999-SmithCo

Fax: 314-873-3800


Our main office is on

55 West Street, Suite 2650, Arlington, VA 

creative intercultural publishing


The Documentation Center Impact of the German Occupation on Crete

was financed by the Federal Foreign Office

from the German-Greek Future Fund.

ongoing projects:


a constantly growing collection of books and documents

on the German occupation of Crete 1941 - 1944


Maria Despotaki

Μαρία Δεσποτάκη

(2) Nearby Kastelli hill is the oldest district in Hania, an ancient acropolis fortified (as we see it today) in the 10th century CE which has been continuously inhabited since the Minoan period and for which we have Minoan archaeological evidence all over this part of town. Over the centuries, Kastelli was the city's administrative and commercial center and comprised its wealthy neighborhoods. As such, it was a treasure of Byzantine, Venetian and Ottoman architecture and artifacts until WW II. In May 1941, German bombing flattened this part of the city prior to “Operation Mercury”, a bombing campaign undertaken without any discernible strategic objective. As a result, much of Kastelli today features rather indistinct residential buildings dating to the 1950s and 1960s. 

to continue your tour through the old town of Hania, please click here

                                                                                           memorial walk

                                                                                                                                             Hania, Crete



(2) Kastelli hill 

The ongoing Greek-Swedish excavations on Kanevaro Street have revealed the largest visible section of the Minoan city of Kydonia. This endeavor was initially only made possible following the bombing of the Dominican Catholic church, Santa Maria, in May 1941, that was reduced to rubble. Once the debris was cleared, some Minoan city foundations were exposed. 

At the end of Agiou Markou Street, you will be standing in an open space that used to be the interior of another Venetian church, Santa Maria dei Miracoli, built in 1615 as part of a convent for Dominican nuns. Some of the facade and parts of the cloister are still visible.

(V) On your way to the neighborhood of Splantzia, you will pass our DOCUMENTATION CENTER IMPACT OF THE GERMAN OCCUPATION ON CRETE / vivliomania Hania International Youth Library on 75 Sifaka Street.

Images from Kastelli hill prior to the bombing in 1941

The DOCUMENTATION CENTER IMPACT OF THE GERMAN OCCUPATION ON CRETE would like to thank Manolis Manoussakas for his support, the access to his personal archives as well as his permission to publish the images on our website.